Complex relationship

One KinCode element is an exact description of a relationship when there exists only one knot individual between the proband and the relative. However, this is not always the case. For instance, full siblings of the proband will have both the father and the mother as common ancestors, two situations that fulfill the knot individual definition. Thus, in order to describe exactly a full sibling's relationship to the proband, two KinCode elements are needed one with the father as the knot individual (2.02), and one with the mother as the knot individual (3.03). The second element (3.03), is considered the mate element to the first, following the definition of the primary and secondary KinCode.

In some instances, there may be several knot individuals linking a proband with another specific relative. A knot individual can even appear in more than one ancestral position on both the proband's pedigree chart and that of the relative. In order to describe fully the kinship in these cases, a separate KinCode element is required for each of this ancestor's positions and all combinations of them. The knot individual definition though, must be fulfilled for all resulting elements. The related individual's KinCode will include all known KinCode elements.

In human genealogy, a verbal notation such as brother, sister, cousin, uncle, etc., is used to describe the closest known relationship between two persons. The words of this notation are often accompanied by either "full" or "half" to indicate whether the common ancestry comprises a couple or a single person. This closest relationship is the one the Knot System expresses as the primary KinCode.

A complex kinship is illustrated in
tables 1 and 2, which treat the blood relations of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to King Harald of Norway. The Queen is the proband. Her kin group is restricted to a five-generation ascent and a six-generation descent. Within this scope, there are fourteen KinCode elements that specify exactly the relationship between Queen Elizabeth and King Harald. The knot individual, Prince Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel, appears only once in Queen Elizabeth's pedigree (at position 46), but three times in King Harald's pedigree (at positions 68, 92, and 116). Thus, there are three corresponding KinCode elements in King Harald's KinCode. Table 2 expands one of these elements, 46.068, to show all individuals constituting that basic relation between these royal monarchs.

Ancestor charts in Adobe PDF format can be downloaded from these links:

Ancestor lists in HTML format at these links:

Cover page
Knot System defined

Knot System applied
--> Complex relationship
---> Table 1 and 2
---> Most complex
--> Additive relationship
--> Kin register
--> Applications


The Knot System will enable geneticists and genealogists to comprehend and communicate much more complex relationships than before.

Hopefully this will have a positive impact on research results.